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Augustine was not unique in his negative attitudes toward sexuality. During this period, extreme asceticism was a standard to be admired and emulated.

The heroes of Augustine's Christian contemporaries were spiritual athletes like St. Antony, who gave up even the most innocent pleasures to live as a hermit in the desert.

During Augustine's lifetime, there were numerous examples of old-line Roman aristocrats who, upon conversion, gave away their wealth to the poor and the Church, lived voluntarily in celibate marriages, and withdrew from Roman society to dedicate their entire lives to the contemplation of God.

Against such a backdrop, Augustine's assertion that there may be a legitimate outlet for sexuality, in marriage and the procreation of children, sounds almost radically liberal.

Nonetheless, it is Augustine's negative views about sexuality that predominate. In her book Adam, Eve, and the Serpent, the religious scholar Elaine Pagels is critical of Augustine's equation of sex with original sin, identifying Augustine as a source of Western society's negative attitudes about sexuality.

Whether Augustine is directly responsible for the traditions that came down to history or simply articulated the prevailing viewpoint is open to debate.

However, Augustine clearly had a significant influence in shaping Western ideas about sexuality. Previous The Confessions and Autobiography. His position on sexual matters was rather basic and clear.

He believed that sex was sinful. Can you imagine God saying to Adam and Eve, "Be fruitful and multiply," and when they did, He punished them for it?

Augustine believed that Adam and Eve's problem in the Garden was because of sex. He thought Eve conceived and bore children in pain Genesis because sex is sinful, and any kind of sexual activity brings pain.

Augustine, human beings should ask God's forgiveness for even thinking about sex and should abstain whenever possible. In fact, Augustine said, 'Men and women who want to be righteous in God's sight should live in celibacy; i.

Augustine was a keen theologian, and his ideas were well respected. His understanding of sex became a standard church doctrine, and we are still feeling the effects of his teaching.

Lloyd says: 'Augustine's writings have probably exerted more influence in the West on love and sexual practice than those of any other man.

The clearest expression of the innate evil in sexual passion, even within marriage, is set forth. Augustine's teachings gave theological structure to feelings of guilt and shame in a biological drive.

However, the enforcement of the doctrine of sexual guilt was difficult. The struggle was to impose celibacy on the clergy. It was only moderately successful until well into the Middle Ages.

They weren't certain that God wanted them to live in celibacy. The church struggled to keep its leaders obedient to this rule. Thirty years old, he had won the most visible academic position in the Latin world at a time when such posts gave ready access to political careers.

Although Augustine spent ten years as a Manichaean, he was never an initiate or "elect", but an "auditor", the lowest level in this religion's hierarchy.

Because of his education, Augustine had great rhetorical prowess and was very knowledgeable of the philosophies behind many faiths.

Augustine arrived in Milan and visited Ambrose, having heard of his reputation as an orator. Like Augustine, Ambrose was a master of rhetoric, but older and more experienced.

In his Confessions , Augustine states, "That man of God received me as a father would, and welcomed my coming as a good bishop should.

Augustine's mother had followed him to Milan and arranged a respectable marriage for him. Although Augustine acquiesced, he had to dismiss his concubine and grieved for having forsaken his lover.

He wrote, "My mistress being torn from my side as an impediment to my marriage, my heart, which clave to her, was racked, and wounded, and bleeding.

However, his emotional wound was not healed. There is evidence Augustine may have considered this former relationship to be equivalent to marriage.

Alypius of Thagaste steered Augustine away from marriage, saying they could not live a life together in the love of wisdom if he married. Augustine looked back years later on the life at Cassiciacum , a villa outside of Milan where he gathered with his followers, and described it as Christianae vitae otium — the leisure of Christian life.

In late August of , [d] at the age of 31, having heard of Ponticianus's and his friends' first reading of the life of Anthony of the Desert , Augustine converted to Christianity.

As Augustine later told it, his conversion was prompted by hearing a child's voice say "take up and read" Latin : tolle, lege.

Resorting to the Sortes Sanctorum , he opened a book of St. Paul's writings codex apostoli, 8. He later wrote an account of his conversion in his Confessions Latin : Confessiones , which has since become a classic of Christian theology and a key text in the history of autobiography.

This work is an outpouring of thanksgiving and penitence. Although it is written as an account of his life, the Confessions also talks about the nature of time, causality, free will, and other important philosophical topics.

Belatedly I loved thee, O Beauty so ancient and so new, belatedly I loved thee. For see, thou wast within and I was without, and I sought thee out there.

Unlovely, I rushed heedlessly among the lovely things thou hast made. Thou wast with me, but I was not with thee.

These things kept me far from thee; even though they were not at all unless they were in thee. Thou didst call and cry aloud, and didst force open my deafness.

Thou didst gleam and shine, and didst chase away my blindness. Thou didst breathe fragrant odors and I drew in my breath; and now I pant for thee.

I tasted, and now I hunger and thirst. Thou didst touch me, and I burned for thy peace. He only kept the family house, which he converted into a monastic foundation for himself and a group of friends.

He became a famous preacher more than preserved sermons are believed to be authentic , and was noted for combating the Manichaean religion, to which he had formerly adhered.

In , he was made coadjutor Bishop of Hippo and became full Bishop shortly thereafter, [85] hence the name "Augustine of Hippo"; and he gave his property to the church of Thagaste.

He wrote his autobiographical Confessions in — His work The City of God was written to console his fellow Christians shortly after the Visigoths had sacked Rome in Augustine worked tirelessly to convince the people of Hippo to convert to Christianity.

Though he had left his monastery, he continued to lead a monastic life in the episcopal residence. Possidius admired Augustine as a man of powerful intellect and a stirring orator who took every opportunity to defend Christianity against its detractors.

Possidius also described Augustine's personal traits in detail, drawing a portrait of a man who ate sparingly, worked tirelessly, despised gossip, shunned the temptations of the flesh, and exercised prudence in the financial stewardship of his see.

Shortly before Augustine's death, the Vandals , a Germanic tribe that had converted to Arianism , invaded Roman Africa. The Vandals besieged Hippo in the spring of , when Augustine entered his final illness.

According to Possidius, one of the few miracles attributed to Augustine, the healing of an ill man, took place during the siege.

He directed the library of the church in Hippo and all the books therein should be carefully preserved. He died on 28 August They destroyed all but Augustine's cathedral and library, which they left untouched.

He is considered the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, and a number of cities and dioceses. He is invoked against sore eyes. Around , his remains were transported again by Peter, bishop of Pavia and uncle of the Lombard king Liutprand , to the church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro in Pavia, in order to save them from frequent coastal raids by Saracens.

In January , Pope John XXII issued the papal bull Veneranda Santorum Patrum , in which he appointed the Augustinians guardians of the tomb of Augustine called Arca , which was remade in and elaborately carved with bas-reliefs of scenes from Augustine's life.

In October , some workmen in the Church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro in Pavia discovered a marble box containing human bones including part of a skull.

A dispute arose between the Augustinian hermits Order of Saint Augustine and the regular canons Canons Regular of Saint Augustine as to whether these were the bones of Augustine.

The hermits did not believe so; the canons affirmed they were. The bishop declared that, in his opinion, the bones were those of Saint Augustine. The Augustinians were expelled from Pavia in , taking refuge in Milan with the relics of Augustine, and the disassembled Arca , which were removed to the cathedral there.

San Pietro fell into disrepair, but was finally rebuilt in the s, under the urging of Agostino Gaetano Riboldi , and reconsecrated in when the relics of Augustine and the shrine were once again reinstalled.

In , a portion of Augustine's right arm cubitus was secured from Pavia and returned to Annaba. Catholicism portal. Augustine's large contribution of writings covered diverse fields including theology, philosophy and sociology.

Along with John Chrysostom , Augustine was among the most prolific scholars of the early church by quantity. Augustine was one of the first Christian ancient Latin authors with a very clear vision of theological anthropology.

In his late treatise On Care to Be Had for the Dead, section 5 AD he exhorted respect for the body on the grounds it belonged to the very nature of the human person.

Initially, the two elements were in perfect harmony. After the fall of humanity they are now experiencing dramatic combat between one another.

They are two categorically different things. The body is a three-dimensional object composed of the four elements, whereas the soul has no spatial dimensions.

Augustine was not preoccupied, as Plato and Descartes were, in detailed efforts to explain the metaphysics of the soul-body union. It sufficed for him to admit they are metaphysically distinct: to be a human is to be a composite of soul and body, with the soul superior to the body.

The latter statement is grounded in his hierarchical classification of things into those that merely exist, those that exist and live, and those that exist, live, and have intelligence or reason.

Like other Church Fathers such as Athenagoras , [] Tertullian , [] Clement of Alexandria and Basil of Caesarea , [] Augustine "vigorously condemned the practice of induced abortion ", and although he disapproved of an abortion during any stage of pregnancy, he made a distinction between early and later abortions.

His view was based on the Aristotelian distinction "between the fetus before and after its supposed 'vivification'". Therefore, he did not classify as murder the abortion of an "unformed" fetus since he thought it could not be known with certainty the fetus had received a soul.

Augustine held that "the timing of the infusion of the soul was a mystery known to God alone". It lay along a continuum that included infanticide as an instance of 'lustful cruelty' or 'cruel lust.

In City of God , Augustine rejected both the contemporary ideas of ages such as those of certain Greeks and Egyptians that differed from the Church's sacred writings.

He argued the six-day structure of creation presented in the Book of Genesis represents a logical framework , rather than the passage of time in a physical way — it would bear a spiritual, rather than physical, meaning, which is no less literal.

Augustine also does not envision original sin as causing structural changes in the universe, and even suggests the bodies of Adam and Eve were already created mortal before the Fall.

Augustine developed his doctrine of the Church principally in reaction to the Donatist sect. He taught there is one Church, but within this Church there are two realities, namely, the visible aspect the institutional hierarchy , the Catholic sacraments , and the laity and the invisible the souls of those in the Church, who are either dead, sinful members or elect predestined for Heaven.

The former is the institutional body established by Christ on earth which proclaims salvation and administers the sacraments , while the latter is the invisible body of the elect, made up of genuine believers from all ages, and who are known only to God.

The Church, which is visible and societal, will be made up of "wheat" and "tares", that is, good and wicked people as per Mat.

This concept countered the Donatist claim that only those in a state of grace were the "true" or "pure" church on earth, and that priests and bishops who were not in a state of grace had no authority or ability to confect the sacraments.

Augustine's ecclesiology was more fully developed in City of God. There he conceives of the church as a heavenly city or kingdom, ruled by love, which will ultimately triumph over all earthly empires which are self-indulgent and ruled by pride.

Augustine followed Cyprian in teaching that bishops and priests of the Church are the successors of the Apostles , [26] and their authority in the Church is God-given.

Augustine originally believed in premillennialism , namely that Christ would establish a literal 1,year kingdom prior to the general resurrection , but later rejected the belief, viewing it as carnal.

He was the first theologian to expound a systematic doctrine of amillennialism , although some theologians and Christian historians believe his position was closer to that of modern postmillennialists.

The Catholic Church during the Medieval period built its system of eschatology on Augustinian amillennialism, where Christ rules the earth spiritually through his triumphant church.

During the Reformation theologians such as John Calvin accepted amillennialism. Augustine taught that the eternal fate of the soul is determined at death, [] [] and that purgatorial fires of the intermediate state purify only those who died in communion with the Church.

His teaching provided fuel for later theology. Although Augustine did not develop an independent Mariology , his statements on Mary surpass in number and depth those of other early writers.

Even before the Council of Ephesus , he defended the Ever-Virgin Mary as the Mother of God , believing her to be "full of grace" following earlier Latin writers such as Jerome on account of her sexual integrity and innocence.

Augustine took the view that, if a literal interpretation contradicts science and humans' God-given reason, the Biblical text should be interpreted metaphorically.

While each passage of Scripture has a literal sense, this "literal sense" does not always mean the Scriptures are mere history; at times they are rather an extended metaphor.

Augustine taught that the sin of Adam and Eve was either an act of foolishness insipientia followed by pride and disobedience to God or that pride came first.

They would not have fallen into pride and lack of wisdom if Satan hadn't sown into their senses "the root of evil" radix Mali.

Augustine's understanding of the consequences of original sin and the necessity of redeeming grace was developed in the struggle against Pelagius and his Pelagian disciples, Caelestius and Julian of Eclanum , [26] who had been inspired by Rufinus of Syria , a disciple of Theodore of Mopsuestia.

Human nature cannot lose its moral capacity for doing good, but a person is free to act or not act in a righteous way. Pelagius gave an example of eyes: they have capacity for seeing, but a person can make either good or bad use of it.

Like Jovinian , Pelagians insisted human affections and desires were not touched by the fall either. Immorality, e. In opposition, Augustine pointed out the apparent disobedience of the flesh to the spirit, and explained it as one of the results of original sin, punishment of Adam and Eve's disobedience to God.

Augustine had served as a "Hearer" for the Manichaeans for about nine years, [] who taught that the original sin was carnal knowledge. He considers Augustine's marital experience to be quite normal, and even exemplary, aside from the absence of Christian wedding rites.

Brachtendorf showed, Augustine used Ciceronian Stoic concept of passions, to interpret Paul's doctrine of universal sin and redemption. The view that not only human soul but also senses were influenced by the fall of Adam and Eve was prevalent in Augustine's time among the Fathers of the Church.

Some authors perceive Augustine's doctrine as directed against human sexuality and attribute his insistence on continence and devotion to God as coming from Augustine's need to reject his own highly sensual nature as described in the Confessions.

That healing is a process realized in conjugal acts. The virtue of continence is achieved thanks to the grace of the sacrament of Christian marriage, which becomes therefore a remedium concupiscentiae — remedy of concupiscence.

The sin of Adam is inherited by all human beings. Already in his pre-Pelagian writings, Augustine taught that Original Sin is transmitted to his descendants by concupiscence , [] which he regarded as the passion of both, soul and body, [j] making humanity a massa damnata mass of perdition, condemned crowd and much enfeebling, though not destroying, the freedom of the will.

Although Augustine's anti-Pelagian defense of original sin was confirmed at numerous councils, i. Carthage , Ephesus , Orange , Trent and by popes, i.

Pope Innocent I — and Pope Zosimus — , his inherited guilt eternally damning infants was omitted by these councils and popes.

Augustine taught that God orders all things while preserving human freedom. Scholars are divided over whether Augustine's teaching implies double predestination , or the belief God chooses some people for damnation as well as some for salvation.

Catholic scholars tend to deny he held such a view while some Protestants and secular scholars have held that Augustine did believe in double predestination.

In On Rebuke and Grace De correptione et gratia , Augustine wrote: "And what is written, that He wills all men to be saved, while yet all men are not saved, may be understood in many ways, some of which I have mentioned in other writings of mine; but here I will say one thing: He wills all men to be saved, is so said that all the predestinated may be understood by it, because every kind of men is among them.

Speaking of the twins Jacob and Esau, Augustine wrote in his book On the Gift of Perseverance , "[I]t ought to be a most certain fact that the former is of the predestinated, the latter is not.

Also in reaction against the Donatists, Augustine developed a distinction between the "regularity" and "validity" of the sacraments.

Regular sacraments are performed by clergy of the Catholic Church, while sacraments performed by schismatics are considered irregular. Nevertheless, the validity of the sacraments do not depend upon the holiness of the priests who perform them ex opere operato ; therefore, irregular sacraments are still accepted as valid provided they are done in the name of Christ and in the manner prescribed by the Church.

On this point Augustine departs from the earlier teaching of Cyprian , who taught that converts from schismatic movements must be re-baptised.

However, he also stated that baptism, while it does not confer any grace when done outside the Church, does confer grace as soon as one is received into the Catholic Church.

Augustine upheld the early Christian understanding of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist , saying that Christ's statement, "This is my body" referred to the bread he carried in his hands, [] [] and that Christians must have faith the bread and wine are in fact the body and blood of Christ, despite what they see with their eyes.

But no one eats that flesh unless first he adores it; and thus it is discovered how such a footstool of the Lord's feet is adored; and not only do we not sin by adoring, we do sin by not adoring.

Nevertheless, in some of his writings, Augustine expressed a symbolic view of the Eucharist. Against the Pelagians , Augustine strongly stressed the importance of infant baptism.

About the question whether baptism is an absolute necessity for salvation, however, Augustine appears to have refined his beliefs during his lifetime, causing some confusion among later theologians about his position.

He said in one of his sermons that only the baptized are saved. However, a passage from his City of God , concerning the Apocalypse , may indicate Augustine did believe in an exception for children born to Christian parents.

Augustine's contemporaries often believed astrology to be an exact and genuine science. Its practitioners were regarded as true men of learning and called mathemathici.

Astrology played a prominent part in Manichaean doctrine, and Augustine himself was attracted by their books in his youth, being particularly fascinated by those who claimed to foretell the future.

Later, as a bishop, he warned that one should avoid astrologers who combine science and horoscopes. Augustine's term "mathematici", meaning "astrologers", is sometimes mistranslated as "mathematicians".

According to Augustine, they were not genuine students of Hipparchus or Eratosthenes but "common swindlers".

Epistemological concerns shaped Augustine's intellectual development. His early dialogues [ Contra academicos and De Magistro ], both written shortly after his conversion to Christianity, reflect his engagement with sceptical arguments and show the development of his doctrine of divine illumination.

The doctrine of illumination claims God plays an active and regular part in human perception as opposed to God designing the human mind to be reliable consistently, as in, for example, Descartes' idea of clear and distinct perceptions and understanding by illuminating the mind so human beings can recognize intelligible realities God presents.

According to Augustine, illumination is obtainable to all rational minds and is different from other forms of sense perception.

It is meant to be an explanation of the conditions required for the mind to have a connection with intelligible entities.

Augustine also posed the problem of other minds throughout different works, most famously perhaps in On the Trinity VIII.

Augustine asserted Christians should be pacifists as a personal, philosophical stance. Defence of one's self or others could be a necessity, especially when authorized by a legitimate authority.

While not breaking down the conditions necessary for war to be just, Augustine coined the phrase in his work The City of God.

Included in Augustine's earlier theodicy is the claim God created humans and angels as rational beings possessing free will.

Free will was not intended for sin, meaning it is not equally predisposed to both good and evil. A will defiled by sin is not considered as "free" as it once was because it is bound by material things, which could be lost or be difficult to part with, resulting in unhappiness.

Sin impairs free will, while grace restores it. Only a will that was once free can be subjected to sin's corruption. The early Christians opposed the deterministic views e.

The Catholic Church considers Augustine's teaching to be consistent with free will. Augustine led many clergy under his authority at Hippo to free their slaves "as an act of piety".

Christian emperors of his time for 25 years had permitted sale of children, not because they approved of the practice, but as a way of preventing infanticide when parents were unable to care for a child.

Augustine noted that the tenant farmers in particular were driven to hire out or to sell their children as a means of survival. In his book, The City of God , he presents the development of slavery as a product of sin and as contrary to God's divine plan.

He wrote that God "did not intend that this rational creature, who was made in his image, should have dominion over anything but the irrational creation — not man over man, but man over the beasts".

Thus he wrote that righteous men in primitive times were made shepherds of cattle, not kings over men. He wrote: "Slavery is, however, penal, and is appointed by that law which enjoins the preservation of the natural order and forbids its disturbance.

Against certain Christian movements, some of which rejected the use of Hebrew Scripture , Augustine countered that God had chosen the Jews as a special people, [] and he considered the scattering of Jewish people by the Roman Empire to be a fulfillment of prophecy.

Augustine, who believed Jewish people would be converted to Christianity at "the end of time", argued God had allowed them to survive their dispersion as a warning to Christians; as such, he argued, they should be permitted to dwell in Christian lands.

For Augustine, the evil of sexual immorality was not in the sexual act itself, but in the emotions that typically accompany it. In On Christian Doctrine Augustine contrasts love, which is enjoyment on account of God, and lust, which is not on account of God.

Therefore, following the Fall, even marital sex carried out merely to procreate inevitably perpetuates evil On marriage and concupiscence 1. For Augustine, proper love exercises a denial of selfish pleasure and the subjugation of corporeal desire to God.

The only way to avoid evil caused by sexual intercourse is to take the "better" way Confessions 8. Sex within marriage is not, however, for Augustine a sin, although necessarily producing the evil of sexual lust.

Based on the same logic, Augustine also declared the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome to be innocent because they did not intend to sin nor enjoy the act.

Before the Fall, Augustine believed sex was a passionless affair, "just like many a laborious work accomplished by the compliant operation of our other limbs, without any lascivious heat", [] that the seed "might be sown without any shameful lust, the genital members simply obeying the inclination of the will".

It arouses the mind, but it does not follow through what it has begun and arouse the body also" City of God Augustine censured those who try to prevent the creation of offspring when engaging in sexual relations, saying that though they may be nominally married they are not really, but are using that designation as a cloak for turpitude.

When they allow their unwanted children to die of exposure, they unmask their sin. Sometimes they use drugs to produce sterility, or other means to try to destroy the fetus before they are born.

Their marriage is not wedlock but debauchery. Augustine believed Adam and Eve had both already chosen in their hearts to disobey God's command not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge before Eve took the fruit, ate it, and gave it to Adam.

In his Tractates on the Gospel of John , Augustine, commenting on the Samaritan woman from [John —42] , uses the woman as a figure of the Church in agreement with the New Testament teaching that the Church is the bride of Christ.

Augustine is considered an influential figure in the history of education. A work early in Augustine's writings is De Magistro On the Teacher , which contains insights about education.

His ideas changed as he found better directions or better ways of expressing his ideas. In the last years of his life Augustine wrote his Retractationes Retractations , reviewing his writings and improving specific texts.

Henry Chadwick believes an accurate translation of "retractationes" may be "reconsiderations". Reconsiderations can be seen as an overarching theme of the way Augustine learned.

Augustine's understanding of the search for understanding, meaning, and truth as a restless journey leaves room for doubt, development, and change.

Augustine was a strong advocate of critical thinking skills. Because written works were limited during this time, spoken communication of knowledge was very important.

His emphasis on the importance of community as a means of learning distinguishes his pedagogy from some others. Augustine believed dialectic is the best means for learning and that this method should serve as a model for learning encounters between teachers and students.

Augustine's dialogue writings model the need for lively interactive dialogue among learners. If a student has been well educated in a wide variety of subjects, the teacher must be careful not to repeat what they have already learned, but to challenge the student with material they do not yet know thoroughly.

With the student who has had no education, the teacher must be patient, willing to repeat things until the student understands, and sympathetic.

Perhaps the most difficult student, however, is the one with an inferior education who believes he understands something when he does not.

Augustine stressed the importance of showing this type of student the difference between "having words and having understanding" and of helping the student to remain humble with his acquisition of knowledge.

Under the influence of Bede , Alcuin , and Rabanus Maurus , De catechizandis rudibus came to exercise an important role in the education of clergy at the monastic schools, especially from the eighth century onwards.

Augustine believed students should be given an opportunity to apply learned theories to practical experience. Yet another of Augustine's major contributions to education is his study on the styles of teaching.

He claimed there are two basic styles a teacher uses when speaking to the students. The mixed style includes complex and sometimes showy language to help students see the beautiful artistry of the subject they are studying.

The grand style is not quite as elegant as the mixed style, but is exciting and heartfelt, with the purpose of igniting the same passion in the students' hearts.

Augustine balanced his teaching philosophy with the traditional Bible -based practice of strict discipline.

Augustine of Hippo had to deal with issues of violence and coercion throughout his entire career due largely to the Donatist-Catholic conflict. He is one of very few authors in Antiquity who ever truly theoretically examined the ideas of religious freedom and coercion.

During the Great Persecution , "When Roman soldiers came calling, some of the [Catholic] officials handed over the sacred books, vessels, and other church goods rather than risk legal penalties" over a few objects.

The term originally meant one who hands over a physical object, but it came to mean "traitor. According to Tilley, after the persecution ended, those who had apostatized wanted to return to their positions in the church.

Augustine became coadjutor Bishop of Hippo in , and since he believed that conversion must be voluntary, his appeals to the Donatists were verbal.

For several years, he used popular propaganda, debate, personal appeal, General Councils, appeals to the emperor and political pressure to bring the Donatists back into union with the Catholics, but all attempts failed.

Donatists had attacked, cut out the tongue and cut off the hands of a Bishop Rogatus who had recently converted to Catholicism. An unnamed count of Africa had sent his agent with Rogatus, and he too had been attacked; the count was "inclined to pursue the matter.

Instead, he came to support the state's use of coercion. The primary 'proof text' of what Augustine thought concerning coercion is from Letter 93, written in , as a reply to the bishop Vincentius, of Cartenna Mauretania, North Africa.

This letter shows that both practical and biblical reasons led Augustine to defend the legitimacy of coercion.

He confesses that he changed his mind because of "the ineffectiveness of dialogue and the proven efficacy of laws. According to Mar Marcos, Augustine made use of several biblical examples to legitimize coercion, but the primary analogy in Letter 93 and in Letter , is the parable of the Great Feast in Luke In , Robert Markus [] argued that, for Augustine, a degree of external pressure being brought for the purpose of reform was compatible with the exercise of free will.

In Augustine's view, there is such a thing as just and unjust persecution. Augustine explains that when the purpose of persecution is to lovingly correct and instruct, then it becomes discipline and is just.

Russell [] describes this as "a pastoral strategy in which the church did the persecuting with the dutiful assistance of Roman authorities," [] : adding that it is "a precariously balanced blend of external discipline and inward nurturance.

Augustine placed limits on the use of coercion, recommending fines, imprisonment, banishment, and moderate floggings, preferring beatings with rods which was a common practice in the ecclesial courts.

He continues to advocate holding authority accountable to prevent domination, but affirms the state's right to act. Deane, [] on the other hand, says there is a fundamental inconsistency between Augustine's political thought and "his final position of approval of the use of political and legal weapons to punish religious dissidence" and others have seconded this view.

According to Russell it is possible to see how Augustine himself had evolved from his earlier Confessions to this teaching on coercion and the latter's strong patriarchal nature: "Intellectually, the burden has shifted imperceptibly from discovering the truth to disseminating the truth.

Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors in terms of surviving works, and the list of his works consists of more than one hundred separate titles.

Apart from those, Augustine is probably best known for his Confessions , which is a personal account of his earlier life, and for De civitate Dei The City of God , consisting of 22 books , which he wrote to restore the confidence of his fellow Christians, which was badly shaken by the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in His On the Trinity , in which he developed what has become known as the 'psychological analogy' of the Trinity , is also considered to be among his masterpieces, and arguably of more doctrinal importance than the Confessions or the City of God.

In both his philosophical and theological reasoning, Augustine was greatly influenced by Stoicism , Platonism and Neoplatonism , particularly by the work of Plotinus , author of the Enneads , probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus as Pierre Hadot has argued.

Some Neoplatonic concepts are still visible in Augustine's early writings. He was also influenced by the works of Virgil known for his teaching on language , and Cicero known for his teaching on argument.

Philosopher Bertrand Russell was impressed by Augustine's meditation on the nature of time in the Confessions , comparing it favourably to Kant 's version of the view that time is subjective.

His meditations on the nature of time are closely linked to his consideration of the human ability of memory.

Frances Yates in her study The Art of Memory argues that a brief passage of the Confessions , Augustine's philosophical method, especially demonstrated in his Confessions , had continuing influence on Continental philosophy throughout the 20th century.

His descriptive approach to intentionality, memory, and language as these phenomena are experienced within consciousness and time anticipated and inspired the insights of modern phenomenology and hermeneutics.

The first thinker to be deeply sensitive to the immense difficulties to be found here was Augustine, who laboured almost to despair over this problem.

Martin Heidegger refers to Augustine's descriptive philosophy at several junctures in his influential work Being and Time. Jean Bethke Elshtain in Augustine and the Limits of Politics tried to associate Augustine with Arendt in their concept of evil: "Augustine did not see evil as glamorously demonic but rather as absence of good, something which paradoxically is really nothing.

Seen from a historical perspective, there are three main perspectives on the political thought of Augustine: first, political Augustinianism; second, Augustinian political theology ; and third, Augustinian political theory.

Thomas Aquinas was influenced heavily by Augustine. On the topic of original sin, Aquinas proposed a more optimistic view of man than that of Augustine in that his conception leaves to the reason, will, and passions of fallen man their natural powers even after the Fall, without "supernatural gifts".

According to Leo Ruickbie , Augustine's arguments against magic , differentiating it from miracle, were crucial in the early Church's fight against paganism and became a central thesis in the later denunciation of witches and witchcraft.

According to Professor Deepak Lal, Augustine's vision of the heavenly city has influenced the secular projects and traditions of the Enlightenment , Marxism , Freudianism and eco-fundamentalism.

Augustine has influenced many modern-day theologians and authors such as John Piper. Hannah Arendt , an influential 20th-century political theorist, wrote her doctoral dissertation in philosophy on Augustine, and continued to rely on his thought throughout her career.

Ludwig Wittgenstein extensively quotes Augustine in Philosophical Investigations for his approach to language, both admiringly, and as a sparring partner to develop his own ideas, including an extensive opening passage from the Confessions.

Saussure did not do anything but reform an ancient theory in Europe, according to the modern conceptual exigencies. The libretto for this oratorio, written by Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria , draws upon the influence of Metastasio the finished libretto having been edited by him and is based on an earlier five-act play Idea perfectae conversionis dive Augustinus written by the Jesuit priest Franz Neumayr.

As Dr. Andrea Palent [] says:. Maria Antonia Walpurgis revised the five-part Jesuit drama into a two-part oratorio liberty in which she limits the subject to the conversion of Augustine and his submission to the will of God.

To this was added the figure of the mother, Monica, so as to let the transformation appear by experience rather than the dramatic artifice of deus ex machina.

Throughout the oratorio Augustine shows his willingness to turn to God, but the burden of the act of conversion weighs heavily on him.

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After the fall of humanity they are now experiencing dramatic combat between one another. They are two categorically different things.

The body is a three-dimensional object composed of the four elements, whereas the soul has no spatial dimensions. Augustine was not preoccupied, as Plato and Descartes were, in detailed efforts to explain the metaphysics of the soul-body union.

It sufficed for him to admit they are metaphysically distinct: to be a human is to be a composite of soul and body, with the soul superior to the body.

The latter statement is grounded in his hierarchical classification of things into those that merely exist, those that exist and live, and those that exist, live, and have intelligence or reason.

Like other Church Fathers such as Athenagoras , [] Tertullian , [] Clement of Alexandria and Basil of Caesarea , [] Augustine "vigorously condemned the practice of induced abortion ", and although he disapproved of an abortion during any stage of pregnancy, he made a distinction between early and later abortions.

His view was based on the Aristotelian distinction "between the fetus before and after its supposed 'vivification'".

Therefore, he did not classify as murder the abortion of an "unformed" fetus since he thought it could not be known with certainty the fetus had received a soul.

Augustine held that "the timing of the infusion of the soul was a mystery known to God alone". It lay along a continuum that included infanticide as an instance of 'lustful cruelty' or 'cruel lust.

In City of God , Augustine rejected both the contemporary ideas of ages such as those of certain Greeks and Egyptians that differed from the Church's sacred writings.

He argued the six-day structure of creation presented in the Book of Genesis represents a logical framework , rather than the passage of time in a physical way — it would bear a spiritual, rather than physical, meaning, which is no less literal.

Augustine also does not envision original sin as causing structural changes in the universe, and even suggests the bodies of Adam and Eve were already created mortal before the Fall.

Augustine developed his doctrine of the Church principally in reaction to the Donatist sect. He taught there is one Church, but within this Church there are two realities, namely, the visible aspect the institutional hierarchy , the Catholic sacraments , and the laity and the invisible the souls of those in the Church, who are either dead, sinful members or elect predestined for Heaven.

The former is the institutional body established by Christ on earth which proclaims salvation and administers the sacraments , while the latter is the invisible body of the elect, made up of genuine believers from all ages, and who are known only to God.

The Church, which is visible and societal, will be made up of "wheat" and "tares", that is, good and wicked people as per Mat.

This concept countered the Donatist claim that only those in a state of grace were the "true" or "pure" church on earth, and that priests and bishops who were not in a state of grace had no authority or ability to confect the sacraments.

Augustine's ecclesiology was more fully developed in City of God. There he conceives of the church as a heavenly city or kingdom, ruled by love, which will ultimately triumph over all earthly empires which are self-indulgent and ruled by pride.

Augustine followed Cyprian in teaching that bishops and priests of the Church are the successors of the Apostles , [26] and their authority in the Church is God-given.

Augustine originally believed in premillennialism , namely that Christ would establish a literal 1,year kingdom prior to the general resurrection , but later rejected the belief, viewing it as carnal.

He was the first theologian to expound a systematic doctrine of amillennialism , although some theologians and Christian historians believe his position was closer to that of modern postmillennialists.

The Catholic Church during the Medieval period built its system of eschatology on Augustinian amillennialism, where Christ rules the earth spiritually through his triumphant church.

During the Reformation theologians such as John Calvin accepted amillennialism. Augustine taught that the eternal fate of the soul is determined at death, [] [] and that purgatorial fires of the intermediate state purify only those who died in communion with the Church.

His teaching provided fuel for later theology. Although Augustine did not develop an independent Mariology , his statements on Mary surpass in number and depth those of other early writers.

Even before the Council of Ephesus , he defended the Ever-Virgin Mary as the Mother of God , believing her to be "full of grace" following earlier Latin writers such as Jerome on account of her sexual integrity and innocence.

Augustine took the view that, if a literal interpretation contradicts science and humans' God-given reason, the Biblical text should be interpreted metaphorically.

While each passage of Scripture has a literal sense, this "literal sense" does not always mean the Scriptures are mere history; at times they are rather an extended metaphor.

Augustine taught that the sin of Adam and Eve was either an act of foolishness insipientia followed by pride and disobedience to God or that pride came first.

They would not have fallen into pride and lack of wisdom if Satan hadn't sown into their senses "the root of evil" radix Mali. Augustine's understanding of the consequences of original sin and the necessity of redeeming grace was developed in the struggle against Pelagius and his Pelagian disciples, Caelestius and Julian of Eclanum , [26] who had been inspired by Rufinus of Syria , a disciple of Theodore of Mopsuestia.

Human nature cannot lose its moral capacity for doing good, but a person is free to act or not act in a righteous way. Pelagius gave an example of eyes: they have capacity for seeing, but a person can make either good or bad use of it.

Like Jovinian , Pelagians insisted human affections and desires were not touched by the fall either. Immorality, e. In opposition, Augustine pointed out the apparent disobedience of the flesh to the spirit, and explained it as one of the results of original sin, punishment of Adam and Eve's disobedience to God.

Augustine had served as a "Hearer" for the Manichaeans for about nine years, [] who taught that the original sin was carnal knowledge.

He considers Augustine's marital experience to be quite normal, and even exemplary, aside from the absence of Christian wedding rites.

Brachtendorf showed, Augustine used Ciceronian Stoic concept of passions, to interpret Paul's doctrine of universal sin and redemption. The view that not only human soul but also senses were influenced by the fall of Adam and Eve was prevalent in Augustine's time among the Fathers of the Church.

Some authors perceive Augustine's doctrine as directed against human sexuality and attribute his insistence on continence and devotion to God as coming from Augustine's need to reject his own highly sensual nature as described in the Confessions.

That healing is a process realized in conjugal acts. The virtue of continence is achieved thanks to the grace of the sacrament of Christian marriage, which becomes therefore a remedium concupiscentiae — remedy of concupiscence.

The sin of Adam is inherited by all human beings. Already in his pre-Pelagian writings, Augustine taught that Original Sin is transmitted to his descendants by concupiscence , [] which he regarded as the passion of both, soul and body, [j] making humanity a massa damnata mass of perdition, condemned crowd and much enfeebling, though not destroying, the freedom of the will.

Although Augustine's anti-Pelagian defense of original sin was confirmed at numerous councils, i. Carthage , Ephesus , Orange , Trent and by popes, i.

Pope Innocent I — and Pope Zosimus — , his inherited guilt eternally damning infants was omitted by these councils and popes.

Augustine taught that God orders all things while preserving human freedom. Scholars are divided over whether Augustine's teaching implies double predestination , or the belief God chooses some people for damnation as well as some for salvation.

Catholic scholars tend to deny he held such a view while some Protestants and secular scholars have held that Augustine did believe in double predestination.

In On Rebuke and Grace De correptione et gratia , Augustine wrote: "And what is written, that He wills all men to be saved, while yet all men are not saved, may be understood in many ways, some of which I have mentioned in other writings of mine; but here I will say one thing: He wills all men to be saved, is so said that all the predestinated may be understood by it, because every kind of men is among them.

Speaking of the twins Jacob and Esau, Augustine wrote in his book On the Gift of Perseverance , "[I]t ought to be a most certain fact that the former is of the predestinated, the latter is not.

Also in reaction against the Donatists, Augustine developed a distinction between the "regularity" and "validity" of the sacraments. Regular sacraments are performed by clergy of the Catholic Church, while sacraments performed by schismatics are considered irregular.

Nevertheless, the validity of the sacraments do not depend upon the holiness of the priests who perform them ex opere operato ; therefore, irregular sacraments are still accepted as valid provided they are done in the name of Christ and in the manner prescribed by the Church.

On this point Augustine departs from the earlier teaching of Cyprian , who taught that converts from schismatic movements must be re-baptised.

However, he also stated that baptism, while it does not confer any grace when done outside the Church, does confer grace as soon as one is received into the Catholic Church.

Augustine upheld the early Christian understanding of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist , saying that Christ's statement, "This is my body" referred to the bread he carried in his hands, [] [] and that Christians must have faith the bread and wine are in fact the body and blood of Christ, despite what they see with their eyes.

But no one eats that flesh unless first he adores it; and thus it is discovered how such a footstool of the Lord's feet is adored; and not only do we not sin by adoring, we do sin by not adoring.

Nevertheless, in some of his writings, Augustine expressed a symbolic view of the Eucharist. Against the Pelagians , Augustine strongly stressed the importance of infant baptism.

About the question whether baptism is an absolute necessity for salvation, however, Augustine appears to have refined his beliefs during his lifetime, causing some confusion among later theologians about his position.

He said in one of his sermons that only the baptized are saved. However, a passage from his City of God , concerning the Apocalypse , may indicate Augustine did believe in an exception for children born to Christian parents.

Augustine's contemporaries often believed astrology to be an exact and genuine science. Its practitioners were regarded as true men of learning and called mathemathici.

Astrology played a prominent part in Manichaean doctrine, and Augustine himself was attracted by their books in his youth, being particularly fascinated by those who claimed to foretell the future.

Later, as a bishop, he warned that one should avoid astrologers who combine science and horoscopes. Augustine's term "mathematici", meaning "astrologers", is sometimes mistranslated as "mathematicians".

According to Augustine, they were not genuine students of Hipparchus or Eratosthenes but "common swindlers". Epistemological concerns shaped Augustine's intellectual development.

His early dialogues [ Contra academicos and De Magistro ], both written shortly after his conversion to Christianity, reflect his engagement with sceptical arguments and show the development of his doctrine of divine illumination.

The doctrine of illumination claims God plays an active and regular part in human perception as opposed to God designing the human mind to be reliable consistently, as in, for example, Descartes' idea of clear and distinct perceptions and understanding by illuminating the mind so human beings can recognize intelligible realities God presents.

According to Augustine, illumination is obtainable to all rational minds and is different from other forms of sense perception.

It is meant to be an explanation of the conditions required for the mind to have a connection with intelligible entities.

Augustine also posed the problem of other minds throughout different works, most famously perhaps in On the Trinity VIII.

Augustine asserted Christians should be pacifists as a personal, philosophical stance. Defence of one's self or others could be a necessity, especially when authorized by a legitimate authority.

While not breaking down the conditions necessary for war to be just, Augustine coined the phrase in his work The City of God. Included in Augustine's earlier theodicy is the claim God created humans and angels as rational beings possessing free will.

Free will was not intended for sin, meaning it is not equally predisposed to both good and evil. A will defiled by sin is not considered as "free" as it once was because it is bound by material things, which could be lost or be difficult to part with, resulting in unhappiness.

Sin impairs free will, while grace restores it. Only a will that was once free can be subjected to sin's corruption. The early Christians opposed the deterministic views e.

The Catholic Church considers Augustine's teaching to be consistent with free will. Augustine led many clergy under his authority at Hippo to free their slaves "as an act of piety".

Christian emperors of his time for 25 years had permitted sale of children, not because they approved of the practice, but as a way of preventing infanticide when parents were unable to care for a child.

Augustine noted that the tenant farmers in particular were driven to hire out or to sell their children as a means of survival.

In his book, The City of God , he presents the development of slavery as a product of sin and as contrary to God's divine plan. He wrote that God "did not intend that this rational creature, who was made in his image, should have dominion over anything but the irrational creation — not man over man, but man over the beasts".

Thus he wrote that righteous men in primitive times were made shepherds of cattle, not kings over men. He wrote: "Slavery is, however, penal, and is appointed by that law which enjoins the preservation of the natural order and forbids its disturbance.

Against certain Christian movements, some of which rejected the use of Hebrew Scripture , Augustine countered that God had chosen the Jews as a special people, [] and he considered the scattering of Jewish people by the Roman Empire to be a fulfillment of prophecy.

Augustine, who believed Jewish people would be converted to Christianity at "the end of time", argued God had allowed them to survive their dispersion as a warning to Christians; as such, he argued, they should be permitted to dwell in Christian lands.

For Augustine, the evil of sexual immorality was not in the sexual act itself, but in the emotions that typically accompany it. In On Christian Doctrine Augustine contrasts love, which is enjoyment on account of God, and lust, which is not on account of God.

Therefore, following the Fall, even marital sex carried out merely to procreate inevitably perpetuates evil On marriage and concupiscence 1.

For Augustine, proper love exercises a denial of selfish pleasure and the subjugation of corporeal desire to God.

The only way to avoid evil caused by sexual intercourse is to take the "better" way Confessions 8. Sex within marriage is not, however, for Augustine a sin, although necessarily producing the evil of sexual lust.

Based on the same logic, Augustine also declared the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome to be innocent because they did not intend to sin nor enjoy the act.

Before the Fall, Augustine believed sex was a passionless affair, "just like many a laborious work accomplished by the compliant operation of our other limbs, without any lascivious heat", [] that the seed "might be sown without any shameful lust, the genital members simply obeying the inclination of the will".

It arouses the mind, but it does not follow through what it has begun and arouse the body also" City of God Augustine censured those who try to prevent the creation of offspring when engaging in sexual relations, saying that though they may be nominally married they are not really, but are using that designation as a cloak for turpitude.

When they allow their unwanted children to die of exposure, they unmask their sin. Sometimes they use drugs to produce sterility, or other means to try to destroy the fetus before they are born.

Their marriage is not wedlock but debauchery. Augustine believed Adam and Eve had both already chosen in their hearts to disobey God's command not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge before Eve took the fruit, ate it, and gave it to Adam.

In his Tractates on the Gospel of John , Augustine, commenting on the Samaritan woman from [John —42] , uses the woman as a figure of the Church in agreement with the New Testament teaching that the Church is the bride of Christ.

Augustine is considered an influential figure in the history of education. A work early in Augustine's writings is De Magistro On the Teacher , which contains insights about education.

His ideas changed as he found better directions or better ways of expressing his ideas. In the last years of his life Augustine wrote his Retractationes Retractations , reviewing his writings and improving specific texts.

Henry Chadwick believes an accurate translation of "retractationes" may be "reconsiderations". Reconsiderations can be seen as an overarching theme of the way Augustine learned.

Augustine's understanding of the search for understanding, meaning, and truth as a restless journey leaves room for doubt, development, and change.

Augustine was a strong advocate of critical thinking skills. Because written works were limited during this time, spoken communication of knowledge was very important.

His emphasis on the importance of community as a means of learning distinguishes his pedagogy from some others. Augustine believed dialectic is the best means for learning and that this method should serve as a model for learning encounters between teachers and students.

Augustine's dialogue writings model the need for lively interactive dialogue among learners. If a student has been well educated in a wide variety of subjects, the teacher must be careful not to repeat what they have already learned, but to challenge the student with material they do not yet know thoroughly.

With the student who has had no education, the teacher must be patient, willing to repeat things until the student understands, and sympathetic.

Perhaps the most difficult student, however, is the one with an inferior education who believes he understands something when he does not.

Augustine stressed the importance of showing this type of student the difference between "having words and having understanding" and of helping the student to remain humble with his acquisition of knowledge.

Under the influence of Bede , Alcuin , and Rabanus Maurus , De catechizandis rudibus came to exercise an important role in the education of clergy at the monastic schools, especially from the eighth century onwards.

Augustine believed students should be given an opportunity to apply learned theories to practical experience. Yet another of Augustine's major contributions to education is his study on the styles of teaching.

He claimed there are two basic styles a teacher uses when speaking to the students. The mixed style includes complex and sometimes showy language to help students see the beautiful artistry of the subject they are studying.

The grand style is not quite as elegant as the mixed style, but is exciting and heartfelt, with the purpose of igniting the same passion in the students' hearts.

Augustine balanced his teaching philosophy with the traditional Bible -based practice of strict discipline. Augustine of Hippo had to deal with issues of violence and coercion throughout his entire career due largely to the Donatist-Catholic conflict.

He is one of very few authors in Antiquity who ever truly theoretically examined the ideas of religious freedom and coercion.

During the Great Persecution , "When Roman soldiers came calling, some of the [Catholic] officials handed over the sacred books, vessels, and other church goods rather than risk legal penalties" over a few objects.

The term originally meant one who hands over a physical object, but it came to mean "traitor. According to Tilley, after the persecution ended, those who had apostatized wanted to return to their positions in the church.

Augustine became coadjutor Bishop of Hippo in , and since he believed that conversion must be voluntary, his appeals to the Donatists were verbal.

For several years, he used popular propaganda, debate, personal appeal, General Councils, appeals to the emperor and political pressure to bring the Donatists back into union with the Catholics, but all attempts failed.

Donatists had attacked, cut out the tongue and cut off the hands of a Bishop Rogatus who had recently converted to Catholicism.

An unnamed count of Africa had sent his agent with Rogatus, and he too had been attacked; the count was "inclined to pursue the matter.

Instead, he came to support the state's use of coercion. The primary 'proof text' of what Augustine thought concerning coercion is from Letter 93, written in , as a reply to the bishop Vincentius, of Cartenna Mauretania, North Africa.

This letter shows that both practical and biblical reasons led Augustine to defend the legitimacy of coercion.

He confesses that he changed his mind because of "the ineffectiveness of dialogue and the proven efficacy of laws.

According to Mar Marcos, Augustine made use of several biblical examples to legitimize coercion, but the primary analogy in Letter 93 and in Letter , is the parable of the Great Feast in Luke In , Robert Markus [] argued that, for Augustine, a degree of external pressure being brought for the purpose of reform was compatible with the exercise of free will.

In Augustine's view, there is such a thing as just and unjust persecution. Augustine explains that when the purpose of persecution is to lovingly correct and instruct, then it becomes discipline and is just.

Russell [] describes this as "a pastoral strategy in which the church did the persecuting with the dutiful assistance of Roman authorities," [] : adding that it is "a precariously balanced blend of external discipline and inward nurturance.

Augustine placed limits on the use of coercion, recommending fines, imprisonment, banishment, and moderate floggings, preferring beatings with rods which was a common practice in the ecclesial courts.

He continues to advocate holding authority accountable to prevent domination, but affirms the state's right to act.

Deane, [] on the other hand, says there is a fundamental inconsistency between Augustine's political thought and "his final position of approval of the use of political and legal weapons to punish religious dissidence" and others have seconded this view.

According to Russell it is possible to see how Augustine himself had evolved from his earlier Confessions to this teaching on coercion and the latter's strong patriarchal nature: "Intellectually, the burden has shifted imperceptibly from discovering the truth to disseminating the truth.

Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors in terms of surviving works, and the list of his works consists of more than one hundred separate titles.

Apart from those, Augustine is probably best known for his Confessions , which is a personal account of his earlier life, and for De civitate Dei The City of God , consisting of 22 books , which he wrote to restore the confidence of his fellow Christians, which was badly shaken by the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in His On the Trinity , in which he developed what has become known as the 'psychological analogy' of the Trinity , is also considered to be among his masterpieces, and arguably of more doctrinal importance than the Confessions or the City of God.

In both his philosophical and theological reasoning, Augustine was greatly influenced by Stoicism , Platonism and Neoplatonism , particularly by the work of Plotinus , author of the Enneads , probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus as Pierre Hadot has argued.

Some Neoplatonic concepts are still visible in Augustine's early writings. He was also influenced by the works of Virgil known for his teaching on language , and Cicero known for his teaching on argument.

Philosopher Bertrand Russell was impressed by Augustine's meditation on the nature of time in the Confessions , comparing it favourably to Kant 's version of the view that time is subjective.

His meditations on the nature of time are closely linked to his consideration of the human ability of memory.

Frances Yates in her study The Art of Memory argues that a brief passage of the Confessions , Augustine's philosophical method, especially demonstrated in his Confessions , had continuing influence on Continental philosophy throughout the 20th century.

His descriptive approach to intentionality, memory, and language as these phenomena are experienced within consciousness and time anticipated and inspired the insights of modern phenomenology and hermeneutics.

The first thinker to be deeply sensitive to the immense difficulties to be found here was Augustine, who laboured almost to despair over this problem.

Martin Heidegger refers to Augustine's descriptive philosophy at several junctures in his influential work Being and Time. Jean Bethke Elshtain in Augustine and the Limits of Politics tried to associate Augustine with Arendt in their concept of evil: "Augustine did not see evil as glamorously demonic but rather as absence of good, something which paradoxically is really nothing.

Seen from a historical perspective, there are three main perspectives on the political thought of Augustine: first, political Augustinianism; second, Augustinian political theology ; and third, Augustinian political theory.

Thomas Aquinas was influenced heavily by Augustine. On the topic of original sin, Aquinas proposed a more optimistic view of man than that of Augustine in that his conception leaves to the reason, will, and passions of fallen man their natural powers even after the Fall, without "supernatural gifts".

According to Leo Ruickbie , Augustine's arguments against magic , differentiating it from miracle, were crucial in the early Church's fight against paganism and became a central thesis in the later denunciation of witches and witchcraft.

According to Professor Deepak Lal, Augustine's vision of the heavenly city has influenced the secular projects and traditions of the Enlightenment , Marxism , Freudianism and eco-fundamentalism.

Augustine has influenced many modern-day theologians and authors such as John Piper. Hannah Arendt , an influential 20th-century political theorist, wrote her doctoral dissertation in philosophy on Augustine, and continued to rely on his thought throughout her career.

Ludwig Wittgenstein extensively quotes Augustine in Philosophical Investigations for his approach to language, both admiringly, and as a sparring partner to develop his own ideas, including an extensive opening passage from the Confessions.

Saussure did not do anything but reform an ancient theory in Europe, according to the modern conceptual exigencies. The libretto for this oratorio, written by Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria , draws upon the influence of Metastasio the finished libretto having been edited by him and is based on an earlier five-act play Idea perfectae conversionis dive Augustinus written by the Jesuit priest Franz Neumayr.

As Dr. Andrea Palent [] says:. Maria Antonia Walpurgis revised the five-part Jesuit drama into a two-part oratorio liberty in which she limits the subject to the conversion of Augustine and his submission to the will of God.

To this was added the figure of the mother, Monica, so as to let the transformation appear by experience rather than the dramatic artifice of deus ex machina.

Throughout the oratorio Augustine shows his willingness to turn to God, but the burden of the act of conversion weighs heavily on him. This is displayed by Hasse through extended recitative passages.

Lancel, Serge Saint Augustine. SCM Press. Wilson, Ken The Foundation of Augustinian-Calvinism. Independently Published.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Early Catholic theologian, philosopher, Church Father, bishop and Christian saint.

For other uses, see Augustine disambiguation , Saint Augustine disambiguation , and Augustinus disambiguation. Bishop of Hippo Regius.

Filioque [1] Original sin Free will Augustinian predestination Just war theory Absence of good [2] Concupiscence [3] Sacramental character [4] Augustinian hypothesis [5] Augustinian theodicy Augustinian values [6] Divine command theory [7] Amillennialism You are Christ [8] Deity [9] Solvitur ambulando [10] Heroic virtue [11] Incurvatus in se [12] Genesis as an allegory [13] [14] Divine illumination Theocentricism [15] Limbo [16].

Virtually all of subsequent Western philosophy and Catholic theology , as well as a significant amount of Protestant theology. Ordination history of Augustine of Hippo.

Priestly ordination. Episcopal consecration. Platonic realism Filioque Original sin. Free will Augustinian predestination.

Just war theory Absence of good. Concupiscence Sacramental character. Augustinian theodicy Augustinian values. Divine command theory Amillennialism.

Deity Church invisible Divine illumination. Theocentricism Limbo. Solvitur ambulando Heroic virtue Incurvatus in se.

Biblical criticism. Augustinian hypothesis Allegorical interpretations of Genesis. Influences and precursors. Homer Socrates Plato Cicero. Virgil Paul Seneca Tertullian.

Cyprian Origen Plotinus. Augustinian thinkers. Other similar developments. Scholastic method Anselmianism Thomism. Scotism Christian humanism Molinism.

Contrary positions. Western Christianity Catholic theology Neoplatonism and Christianity. This box: view talk edit. Jesus Christ. Nativity Crucifixion Resurrection.

Bible Foundations. History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Related topics. Aquinas , Scotus , and Ockham. See also: Allegorical interpretations of Genesis.

See also: Ecclesiology. See also: Original sin. See also: Predestination. See also: Just war theory.

Main article: Augustine of Hippo bibliography. Scholastic schools. Thomism Scotism Occamism. Major scholastic works. Epistola ; TeSelle , p.

Contra Julianum , V, 4. I suppose, in order that, it may consider itself, and live according to its own nature; that is, seek to be regulated according to its own nature, viz.

For it does many things through vicious desire, as though in forgetfulness of itself. For it sees some things intrinsically excellent, in that more excellent nature which is God: and whereas it ought to remain steadfast that it may enjoy them, it is turned away from Him, by wishing to appropriate those things to itself, and not to be like to Him by His gift, but to be what He is by its own, and it begins to move and slip gradually down into less and less, which it thinks to be more and more.

Quod ideo dictum est, quoniam "libido non-est bonus et rectus usus libidinis". Sicut enim malum est male uti bonis, ita bonum bene uti malis.

De qua re alias, maxime contra novos haereticos Pelagianos, diligentius disputavi. Augustine's teachings gave theological structure to feelings of guilt and shame in a biological drive.

However, the enforcement of the doctrine of sexual guilt was difficult. The struggle was to impose celibacy on the clergy. It was only moderately successful until well into the Middle Ages.

They weren't certain that God wanted them to live in celibacy. The church struggled to keep its leaders obedient to this rule. In fact, sexual prohibition was one of the first doctrines that Martin Luther and the other Reformers broke away from.

Luther left the monastery to marry a nun. It is noble and honorable to live a life of celibacy, but to apply a personal conviction to the world is unwise.

I do not doubt St. Augustine's love and devotion to God. He tried to put the natural sex drive into the spiritual area. Sex is not spiritual. It is natural.

The flesh is natural. When you get married, it doesn't mean you suddenly become one spirit or one mind. As couples live together and communicate, they can develop a good relationship and become very close, but God's concept is that in the marital relationship the only way you become one is in the flesh.

However, he qualifies this statement by adding that by virtue of the bodily sex, they are naturally submissive to men, just as the active energy of the mind must be submissive to the command of the rational intellect.

To Augustine, this submission would have been evidence of a natural harmony, but modern readers must note that the quality Augustine values most, rationality, is associated with men, while unbridled energy is associated with women.

And yet, the personification of Augustine's greatest desire, Lady Continence, is a woman. The Confessions conveys in subtle ways the idea that women are important, even vital, but that they also pose a serious risk.

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